The final result of gradient measurements of the geomagnetic field is an estimate of the derivative of the field in the direction of the line of measurement. In this case it is necessary:
Let us write the values of the field measured by the first and second sensors of the gradient meter:
T1 = Te ( x + Dx, t ) + TB ( x + Dx, t ) + d1 ( x + Dx, t ),
T2 = Te ( x, t ) + TB ( x, t ) + d2 (x, t ),
where Te is the geomagnetic field; Tex is the magetic field produced by external sources; d1 (x, t ) and d2 (x, t ) are the errors of the sensors; and Dx is the effective base between the sensors of the gradient meter.